Part of what makes disputes so confusing is that the term is used to represent various meanings, depending on the situation. One of those nuances pertains specifically to retail.
Not only do retailers perceive chargebacks as an outcome of a customer dispute (see FAQ: ‘What is a chargeback?'), but retailers can also initiate a chargeback that credits the full or partial value of goods to the wholesaler. This only happens if an error occurred on the retailer's side.
So instead of a dispute being filed by customer, which in turn is sent to the retailer, chargebacks can also refer to transaction reversals made by a retailer toward a supplier.